Thursday, May 21, 2020
The Japanese word for dog is inu. You can write inu in either hiragana or kanji, but since the kanji character for dog is quite simple, try learning how to write it in kanji. Typical Japanese dogs include Akita, Tosa, and Shiba breeds. The onomatopoeic phrase for a dogs bark is wan-wan. In Japan, the dog is believed to have been domesticated as early as the Jomon period (10,000 B.C.). White dogs are thought to be especially auspicious and often appear in folk tales (such as Hanasaka jiisan). In the Edo period, Tokugawa Tsuneyoshi, the fifth shogun and an ardent Buddhist, ordered the protection of all animals, especially dogs. His regulations concerning dogs were so extreme that he was ridiculed as the Inu Shogun. A more recent story is the tale of Hachiko, the chuuken or faithful dog from the 1920s. Hachiko met his master at Shibuya station at the end of every workday. Even after his master died one day at work, Hachiko continued to wait at the station for 10 years. He became a popular symbol of devotion. After his death, Hachikos body was put in a museum, and there is a bronze statue of him in front of Shibuya station. Critical phrases referring to inu are as common in Japan as they are in the West. Inujini, to die like dog, is to die meaninglessly. To call someone a dog is to accuse him or her of being a spy or dupe. Inu mo arukeba bou ni ataru or when the dog walks, it runs across a stick is a common saying, meaning that when you walk outside, you could possibly meet with an unexpected fortune. Kobanashi: Ji no Yomenu Inu Here is a kobanashi (funny story) titled Ji no Yomenu Inu, or The Dog That CanÃ¢â¬â¢t Read.Ã¢â¬ Inu no daikiraina otoko ga, tomodachi ni kikimashita.Ã¢â¬ Naa, inu ga itemo heiki de tooreru houhou wa nai darou ka.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ Soitsu wa, kantanna koto sa.Te no hira ni tora to iu ji o kaite oite, inu ga itara soitsu o miseru n da.Suruto inu wa okkanagatte nigeru kara.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ Fumu fumu. Soitsu wa, yoi koto o kiita.Ã¢â¬ Otoko wa sassoku, te no hira ni tora to iu ji o kaite dekakemashita.Shibaraku iku to, mukou kara ookina inu ga yatte kimasu.Yoshi, sassoku tameshite yarou.Otoko wa te no hira o, inu no mae ni tsukidashimashita.Suruto inu wa isshun bikkuri shita monono, ookina kuchi o akete sono te o gaburi to kandan desu. Tsugi no hi, te o kamareta otoko ga tomodachi ni monku o iimashita.Ã¢â¬ Yai, oame no iu youni, te ni tora to iu ji o kaite inu ni meseta ga, hore kono youni, kuitsukarete shimatta wa.Ã¢â¬ Suruto tomodachi wa, kou iimashita.Ã¢â¬ Yare yare, sore wa fuun na koto da. Osoraku sono inu wa, ji no yomenu inu darou.Ã¢â¬ Grammar In the above story, Ã¢â¬Å"fumu fumu,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"yoshi,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"yare yareÃ¢â¬ are Japanese interjections. Ã¢â¬Å"Fumu fumuÃ¢â¬ can be translated as, Ã¢â¬Å"Hmm,Ã¢â¬ or, Ã¢â¬Å"I see.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yare yare,Ã¢â¬ describes a sigh of relief. Here are some examples. Yoshi, sore ni kimeta: OK, I am sold on that idea!Yoshi, hikiukeyou: All right, I will take it on.Yare yare, yatto tsuita: Well, here we are at last.Yare yare, kore de tasukatta: Hallelujah! We are safe at last.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The invasion by the German military into Poland on September 1, 1939 is frequently recognized as the legitimate beginning to World War II, as Britain and France formally declared war on Germany following GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s invasion into Poland. However, although HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s hostile military action toward Poland triggered the outbreak of World War II, this does not necessarily mean that Hitler intended to start a world war in 1939. Indeed, historians debate whether Hitler planned to provoke a word war when he invaded Poland. In order to better understand HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s motivations, it is necessary to gain a broader of understanding of the geopolitical and economic environment leading up to World War II. The events that led to World War II are closely connected to the roots of World War I. Germany and its leader, Kaiser Wilhelm II, and its allies, were defeated by the United Kingdom and France in World War I. Germany was the scapegoat of the war, and after the Treaty of Versaille s, Germany was forced to pay heavy war reparations ($30 billion) and to disarm. In addition, land was taken away from Germany and given to other countries. There were additional restrictions on Germany, i.e., it could not form a union with Austria. The Germans resented the Treaty, and the reparations had an impact on GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s economy which was struggling in the wake of the Great Depression of 1929, which led to high unemployment and general discontentment in the population. It is not surprising then that in theShow MoreRelatedThe Invasion of Normandy in World War II Essay1014 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesInvasion of Normandy The Invasion of Normandy was the most decisive battle of World War II in Western Europe. The importance of the location help to diminish Nazi power. The attack was postponed several times due to weather. Was the order to Ã¢â¬Å"GoÃ¢â¬ given to soon based off an incorrect Weather report? The planning of Operation Overlord was an idea that formed early in 1942. One of the key points that helped move the planning along was the idea that the German U-Bats were no longer a threat toRead MoreThe Invasion Of France During World War II2549 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesAt the beginning of spring 1944, the Allies had an aim to mislead the Nazis about the location of the invasion of France with Operation Bodyguard; Hitler was deceived into thinking that the real invasion, which took place on the beaches of Normandy was actually a diversion, and he believed the attacks would actually occur at Pas-de-Calais. Afterwards, in June 6, 1944 the Allies started Operation Overlord with the attack against the Nazi-occupied France above the beaches of Normandy. (Unit 5) EvenRead MoreThe Invasion Of Poland During The World War II2386 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesGermany commenced their invasion of Poland (Bethell 1). The events that ushered in this invasion are complex, and help explain HitlerÃ¢â¬â ¢s intentions and goals. The invasion was preceded by GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s vast re-equipment, as well as its numerous diplomatic efforts. HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s September invasion was predicated on his strong belief that the war would be limited to a single enemy, Poland. Aware of GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s economic and militaristic limitations, Hitler did not intend to start World War II when he invaded PolandRead MoreThe War Of The Second World War II Essay1744 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ involvement in World War II was made known in 1940, Congress imposed a draft for men ages eighteen to thirty-seven. This was a way for them to join the fight against the axis powers. This particular war is noted as the most brutal war throughout all of history. Out of the men who registered to draft, many of them were also involved in what would be called the most popular battle of the Second World War, or the invasion of Normandy. The Invasion of Normandy, other wise referred toRead MoreWorld War II : The End Of The War975 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages World War II was a war that had started for the first. With two sides the Allied Powers versus the Axis Powers. The end of the war went out with a bang. World War II was a gigantic fascinating process of events; the war itself started on September 1, 1939 to September 2, 1945. There are many fascinating things about World War II, but the beginning is always interesting. Coming just two decades after the last great global conflict World War I. The Second World War was the most widespread and deadliestRead MoreThe War Of World War II1640 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages After becoming Reich Chancellor in 1933, Hitler swiftly consolidated power, anointing himself FÃ ¼hrer (supreme leader) in 1934. Obsessed with the idea of the superiority of the Ã¢â¬Å"pureÃ¢â¬ German race, which he called Ã¢â¬Å"Aryan,Ã¢â¬ Hitler believed that war was the only way to gain the necessary Ã¢â¬Å"Lebensraum,Ã¢â¬ or living space, for that race to expand. In the mid-1930s, he began the rearmament of Germany, secretly and in violation of the Versailles Treaty. After signing alliances with Italy and Japan againstRead MoreD-Day The Invasion Of Normandy Essay1550 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The Battle of Normandy was a turning point in World War II. Canada, America, and Great Britain arrived at the beaches of Normandy and their main objective was to push the NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s out of France. The Invasion at Normandy by the Allied Powers winning this battle lead to the liberation of France and Western Europe. Most importantly Hitler was being attacked from both the eastern and western front, and caused him to lose power. If the Allied Powers did not succeed On D-Day, Hitler wouldÃ¢â¬â¢ve taken overRead MoreRobert Leckie, Book Review of Okinawa: the Last Battle of World War Ii1002 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOkinawa: The Last Battle of World War II, is entirely about one of World War IIÃ¢â¬â¢s most brutally fought battles. On April 1, 1945, the U.S. invaded Japan, attacking the island of Okinawa with 540,000 U.S. Army and Marines, and 1,600 ships. Ã¢â¬Å" L DayÃ¢â¬ was the official name for this day. The L stood for Ã¢â¬Å"Landing,Ã¢â¬ but the Americans who invaded the Hag ushi Beaches that day without any trouble from the Japanese, called it Ã¢â¬Å"Love Day.Ã¢â¬ This battle was the last battle of World War II and lasted a whopping eighty-threeRead MoreThe Battle Of The Allied Powers During World War II1528 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesin World War II, the idea of an amphibious landing was explored thoroughly and determined to be the only way to get a foothold into HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s empire. The invasion was a bloody 3 day encounter on 5 beaches that resulted in an enormous exchange between Hitler and the Allies. Because of this, it gave a rise to the power to the Allies in Europe when D-day was victorious. From 1941-1944 the Allies goal was to defeat Germany first. For many months, the Allies were trying to plan a massive invasion of NorthwestRead MoreCauses And Effects Of World War II1370 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCauses and Effects of World War II World War II has been considered one of the worst things to ever occur in history. Violence, death and aggression took place in the 1930s and 1940s in certain European nations. German leader, Hitler played an important, yet a very big role during this time. With the rise and domination of fascism in Germany and Italy, the goal was to maintain peace, established by the Treaty of Versailles ended up in major disaster. World War II began with the poor economic conditions
In my opinion, taking a life away is a sin and a punishable crime, even if it is your own life. But, also if the person has to go through unbearable physical and emotional pain, due to a disease or an ailment, and death is his/her only salvation then euthanasia is acceptable. A Crime of Compassion is a nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view on euthanasia and who is more eligible than a nurse to talk about the suffering that a patient goes through. We will write a custom essay sample on A Crime of Compassion or any similar topic only for you Order Now The essay Is about a Mr.. Mac who suffered from terminal lung cancer and Hetman was the nurse tending him at that time. She writes about how much he suffered and how much that diseases changed him, both physically and mentally, for the worst. When Mac entered the hospital all he had was a bad cough; Hetman also explains that he was a cop and that he used to be very active (Hetman, 2002). Mac was diagnosed with lung cancer and he was treated for over a year. And in the period, Hetman got to know his family, his wife and three kids, better. Naturally, an emotional bond was built over time between Mac and Hetman. Throughout the essay, Hetman tries to show the level of pain and discomfort Mac was going through. Over time, he lost weight, hair, bodily controls, sense of taste and many other things. He was just a shadow of the old person he used to be. On top of that, his whole body was covered with bed sores and every time he moved, even a little bit, It hurt him very much. Hetman also explained the effect it had on his family; his wife was suffering Just as much he was but emotionally. Mac asked Hetman to let him go many times and he was In tears. These are the lines he said when they resuscitated him yet another time, Ã¢â¬Å"MercyÃ¢â¬ ¦ Or GodÃ¢â¬â¢s sake, please let me goÃ¢â¬ (Hetman, 2002). Hetman being a good nurse knew that she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t do it and that taking control of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s death is a crime. In the starting of the essay, Hetman talks about her TV show experience. These are the words she used to descry here experience, Ã¢â¬Å"we resuscitated him 52 times in just one month. I refused to resuscitate him. I simply sat there and held his hand while he diedÃ¢â¬ ( Hetman, 2002). WatchmanÃ¢â¬â¢s decision was not an impulsive and reckless one; she followed the hospital protocol until the day she decided to let Mac go. She took care of him for such a long period that his pain became a part of her; she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t get rid of It even when she was at home. She also tried to convince the physician to give out the Ã¢â¬Å"no code callÃ¢â¬ , but Like many doctors he was reluctant. And anally, when Mac was lucid enough to beg Hetman for death, after his 52nd code, she decided to help him die peacefully, no matter what the consequences were. Hetman is an experienced nurse who sees patients suffering on a daily basis. If she really believed that letting Mr.. Mac die as the only solution, then it is safe to deem the decision credible. Hetman is a nurse, her Job is to take care of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and if the patient himself wanted to die then what Hetman did is both ethical and moral. Euthanasia is a very sensitive topic and obviously so. There are many people out here who think that what Hetman did was a horrible thing and I understand where they are coming from. Religion also thinks that taking a life away is a sin and our justice system agrees. There are no laws that support euthanasia and I think it is about time. There is no reason as to why a person canÃ¢â¬â¢t die a dignified way if there is nothing else a doctor can do to improve his state. Only the state of Oregon has a law named Ã¢â¬ËThe Death with Dignity ActÃ¢â¬â¢ which enables Euthanasia. The death by Dignity Act is an act that is exclusive for Oregon. This act lets terminally ill patients to end heir lives by voluntary administration of lethal drugs (Oregon Health Authority). This act was first initiated by the citizens in 1994 and it was passed by a margin of 51%. Even though an injunction delayed it, in 1997 it was passed by the government with a 60% margin. This act got introduced in the state of Washington in 2008 and it became a law in 2009 (Washington State Department of Health). In 2009, the Montana Supreme court agreed up on an act where a physician is allowed to prescribe a terminally ill patient with a lethal drug (State of Montana). OreganoÃ¢â¬â¢s Dignity Act is a strictly laid act and it is so to stop misuse of the law. There are certain pre-conditions for a patient to be eligible for this act such as: he/she should be above 18 years in age, they have to be a resident of Oregon, they have to be mentally sound to make this decision and they have to be diagnosed with a terminally illness that will lead to death in six months. The physician that is currently foreseeing the patient can give the drug, but only if he is willing to. The participation of the doctor is completely voluntary and the patient must find a willing physician to go through this. Another important aspect is that only the patient can request for this, his family cannot do this on their behalf. The process that follows after a request is a well organized one. First the patient has to make two oral requests to the physician with each separated by at least 15 days. Then he has to make a written request asking for the same thing and it should be signed by two witnesses, where one of them must be other than a family member. Then the attending and consulting physicians must agree on the diagnosis and they also must confirm the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s physiological condition. If everything checks well then they can administer the patient with the drug after the end of the waiting period. The patient can back off from the request any time he/she ay want to. In conclusion, the Dignity Act is a step forward where medical laws are concerned. How to cite A Crime of Compassion, Papers
Saturday, April 25, 2020
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer Essay Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer are the best of friends with remarkably different personalities. Each brings their unique characteristics into this comical friendship giving the novel numerous amusing passages. Throughout the tale, Tom is often the leader while Huck is the reluctant follower. It doesnt matter that Toms ideas are ridiculous and extravagant, and Hucks are simple and practical, together they always proceed with Toms imaginative plans. In contrast to Toms great imagination and creativity, Huck is humorless and literal minded. We will write a custom essay on The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Toms imaginativeness comes only from knowledge he has gained through books. Huck, on the other hand, actually lives out the fantasies Tom can only imagine. Tom Sawyer, already civilized, follows the values and beliefs of society. Due to these convictions, Tom always abides by the laws. For these reasons, Tom would never have helped free Jim unless he knew that Jim had already been freed. Conversely, Huck Finn rejects the philosophy of political beliefs for the fear of becoming civilized. He usually runs away at the first notion of him becoming sivilized. Huck is able to function in any society with the help of his adaptability and survival skills. He is able to go from the freedom of the raft, to the perceived harshness of civilization, and back again with ease. Although Tom has been able to slip past Deaths grip so far, his chances of escaping may not always work out to his liking. Of the two, Huck will always be the survivor in life. Together this pair achieves their goals because of their intelligence and witty personalities. They have the ability to put the knowledge they obtain into their every day lives. They are two adventurous souls in search of fresh and exhilarating escapades. Their ages united with their exceptional education keeps them on their toes. Hucks humorless personality and Toms extravagance has made The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, by Mark Twain, a popular adventure for all ages. The American people have forever enjoyed this novel and have made it the American literary classic that it is today. So there aint nothing more to write about an we is rottin glad of it, because if wed a knowed what a trouble it was to make this essay, and, we wouldnt a tackled it, and aint a-going to no more. -Mark Twain pg. 283
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Cabinet essays 1. What factors does a Prime Minister take into account when appointing The cabinet is at the apex of machinery of government as the central controlling body of the executive. It has a dual purpose - it is both administrative and a political unit brining together policy formulation and policy implementation at the highest level. As the cabinet is comprised of between 20 and 24 senior ministers, who are selected by the Prime Minister, it is imperative that when appointing his cabinet, his decision is governed by political and administrative considerations. Politically the heads of the main spending departments will be included as they contribute to and implement government policy as it effects their own area. Theoretically a Prime Minister will also balance the Cabinet to ensure all shades of party opinion have an outlet at the highest level. In practice, both Margaret Thatcher after 1983 and John Major from 1995 tended to balance their cabinets to the right and center respectively. Tony Blairs first New Labour Cabinet of 1997 included a balance of new and old left, but after his second election victory in 2001 he gave the impression that he was less concerned with driving forward government policy with a Cabinet of loyal Blairites. Therefore a Prime Minister must take political considerations into account i.e. he must include the leading members of the party e.g. the chancellor, as the economic dominion is frequently inclusive in much of the policy decision making process. Loyalty and therefore close allies of the Prime Minister are likely candidates of the cabinet as the Prime Minister must seem invariably on message and in agreement with decisions, views and policy in order to maintain collective responsibility and a defiant public image. Inclusion of opposing ministers is also considered as in cabinet they are unable to ...
Sunday, March 1, 2020
What Is SAT Reading Comprehension How to Practice SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips If you're readingthis guide, you may have heard the term SAT Reading Comprehension. It's an olderterm to describe a specific type of SAT Critical Reading question.While the term is outdated, SAT Reading Comprehension is still very important today. The questions fromReading Comprehension are used as apart of the new 2016 SAT Evidence-Based Reading and Writing section. If you hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t heard about the new 2016 SAT, read all about the changes to the SAT here before continuing to read this article. Reading Comprehension is a big part of the Evidence-Based Reading and Writing section. You need to understand what it is, what types of skills it tests, and how to practice it in order to succeed on the Evidence-Based Reading and Writing section. What Is SAT Reading Comprehension? SAT Reading Comprehension refers to a specific type of SAT question that was in the SAT Critical Reading section on the old SAT and will be in the new 2016 SAT Evidence-Based Reading and Writing section. This type of question is more commonly referred to aspassage-based readingbecausethat's the termthe College Board uses on SAT score reports. You can see an examplefrom a 2015 score report below: If youÃ¢â¬â¢re familiar with the old SAT, you know that the SAT Critical Reading section asked two types of questions: sentence-completion and passage-based reading questions.On the new SAT, the SAT Evidence-Based Reading and Writing section will no longer have sentence-completion questions but will still have passage-based reading questions. The new passage-based reading will be slightly different.The new passage-based reading will test all of the same skills covered on the old SAT plustwo new skills.IÃ¢â¬â¢ll cover the exact skills below. What Skills Are Tested The new SATÃ¢â¬â¢s passage-based reading questions will ask you questions related to five passages: One passage dealing with US and World Literature Two passages dealing with History and Social Studies Two passages dealing with Science When answering questions about these passages, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be asked 8 types of questions (each utilizing a different skill). The first 6 were also skills required for the old SAT. Skills 7 and 8 are new for the new SAT: #1:Identifying the Meaning of Vocabulary in Context This kind of reading comprehension SAT question asks you about what a specific word means in the context of the passage. Often, the word is relatively common (not like the old sentence completion words such as Ã¢â¬Å"aberrationÃ¢â¬ ). However, these common words are usually being used in an uncommon way. Sometimes they have multiple meanings, and the less common meaning is being tested. Example In line 23, "ran" most nearly means fled gathered traversed betrayed #2: Identifying the Big Picture / Main Point of the Passage For these questions, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be askedwhatthe overall purpose of the passageis.Is it meant to inform, review, contradict, prove, parody, or hypothesize? Example The primary purpose of Passage 1 is to make a comparison argue a hypothesis justify a clarification highlight a concern #3: Identifying the Purpose of Small Details in the Passage These questions typically refer to a specific line or two and ask you about a specific detail. It might also ask what a phrase or paragraph is accomplishing in the context of the whole passage. Example Which best describes the function of the statement in lines 10-13 ("From...world")? It summarizes the points made in the first paragraph. It provides support for the argument made in the preceding statement. It introduces a contrasting opinion. It challenges recent scientific findings. #4: Interpreting the Meaning of a Line, Paragraph, or Whole Passage / Making an Inference For these questions, you need to interpret the meaning of a line, paragraph, or the whole passage. These won't be asking for subjective interpretations. There will always be only one correct answer. Example The author of the passage would probably agree with which of the following statements about the "Kafka" referred to in line 37? His books were too long. He was ahead of his time. He should be more widely taught. He was crazy. #5: Identifying the Function of a Phrase or Sentence in the Passage To answer these questions, you need to figure out what effect a phrase or sentence has in the passage. Example In lines 4-5, the author refers to her Ã¢â¬Å"flighty natureÃ¢â¬ primarily in order to imply that Ophelia has only a superficial feelings for Gerald. suggest that Ophelia is excessively concerned about appearances. illustrate some of the exaggerated claims made OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s uncle. emphasize OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s unpredictability. #6: Identifying the AuthorÃ¢â¬â¢s Tone, Style, Voice, Attitude, or Perspective Author Techniquequestions ask what the author's tone, style, voice, attitude, or perspective is. Example The author discusses Ethiopian culture from the perspective of a concerned spectator a shocked visitor a knowledgeable insider a well-read outsider #7: Interpreting Data This is one of the new skills. For these questions, you have to interpret graphs or charts and say which fact they best support or least support. You don't need to be a science or data expert to get these questions right, but you need to be able to read and interpret graphs and charts. #8: Providing Evidence Support This is the other new skill for the new SAT. These questions come in sets of two. The first asks a question about the passage, and the second question asks you where in the passage you got your evidence for the first question. Examples Via College Board's Test Specifications for the Redesigned SAT How to Practice First and foremost, you need to know the test format and strategies, so there are no surprises the day of the test.Learn more about each type of passage-based reading question, the best passage-based reading strategies, and the best way to study SAT vocabulary for the new SAT.This knowledge will help you shape your study plan. After learning this material, you need to incorporate SAT practice tests into your study routine.Check out the best SAT reading comprehension practice tests and questions. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Next? If you're taking the SAT, you should learn about the format of thenew SAT,and also, check out some general tips onhow to prepare for the SAT. Before you start studying for the SAT, figure out whatÃ¢â¬â¢s a good score for your target college. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this Reading lesson, you'll love our program.Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands ofpractice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial:
Friday, February 14, 2020
Early Childhood Education in UK in Comparison to Italy - Essay Example In Italy, the state has acknowledged the importance of pre-school education (preparatory school to primary education), took over the complete responsibility in 1968 with the Law no. 444. With Law no. 444, pre-school, with the passing of time by, by gaining educational value and didactical autonomy, became a part of the educational system. Currently Law no. 53 of 28 Mar 2003 and delegated decree no. 59 of 19 Feb 2004 provide for the full introduction of pre-schools in the education system. Due to the anticipated enrollment in pre-schools, all efforts are now directed to open pre-schools to children who reach three years of age. As far as primary education is concerned, in Italy, The Casti Law (1859) provided the establishment of compulsory lower primary school (including 1st and 2nd class) and higher primary school (including 3rd and 4rth class). Municipalities had to take care of this and by 1861 this establishment is extended to the whole of Italy. Currently, with the approval of Legislative Decree 59/2004, primary school education is now composed of 5-year primary school and 3-year lower secondary school education. After the approval of decree no. 59, the debates are going on how teachers are going to UK Government consists of Legislature, the Executive and the judiciary. The parliament consists of Queens, the appointed house of Lords and the elected House of Commons consisting of 659 members. Parliament passes laws, monitors government policies. The Executive cabinet consists of 20 ministers, usually ahead of government departments, appointed and chosen by Prime Minister. Before school standard and framework act 1998, Local Education Authority (LEA) gave provisions to children aged between 2 to 5 years having some Special Education Needs. The 1998 Act imposed a duty on LEA to provide pre-school education in their area. By Apr 2004, LEA has provided free places for two and a half hours of pre-school five days a week to all 3-year and 4-year old children